Synthetic drug trade
As with other drug illicit markets, the production, distribution and sale of synthetic drugs is covered by the Index. Consumption of such drugs, while not in and of itself a form of organised crime, was considered in determining the ‘reach’ of the illicit drug market. Notably, synthetic opioids, such as tramadol, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, methamphetamines and fentanyl are included in this criminal market, as well as any other narcotic included in the 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. Notably, ‘substandard and falsified medical products’ as outlined by the World Health Organization has been excluded.