About the Index

Based on the 2019 ENACT Organised Crime Index for Africa, the Global Organized Crime Index is a key flagship project of the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (GI-TOC). It is a multi-dimensional tool that assesses the level of criminality and resilience to organized crime for 193 countries along three key pillars – criminal markets, criminal actors and resilience. Developed over a two-year period, this iteration of the Index covers the year 2022 and draws from both quantitative and qualitative sources. The tools is underpinned by over 400 expert assessments and evaluations by the GI-TOC’s regional observatories.

The objective of the Index is to provide metrics-based information that would allow policymakers and continental and regional bodies to prioritize their interventions on the basis of a holistic assessment of where vulnerabilities lie, and equip them with the means to measure the efficacy of their responses to mitigate the impact of organized crime. This is the second iteration of the Global Index, which is published every two years.


Index composition

The Global Index measures criminality and resilience for each country on a scale of 1 to 10. Countries’ criminality scores are made up of the average of ten criminal markets and four criminal actor types. While encompassing a range of activities, criminal marketscan be thought of as the political, social and economic systems surrounding all stages of the illicit trade and/or exploitation of commodities or people. Criminal actor scores are based on assessments of the structure, control and influence of groups engaged in organized criminal activities. The higher the criminality score a country has, the more severe its criminality conditions are.

Resilience scores are created by taking the average of 12 resilience indicators. These indicators represent the political, legal, economic and social spheres of society that when taken together, have the potential to provide holistic and effective responses to organized crime. Unlike criminality, the higher the resilience score a country has, the more effective its response measures are to organised crime.

The definitions of criminal markets, criminal actors, and resilience indicators, as used for the purpose of the Index, can be downloaded here. All Index scores have gone through extensive rounds of review and verification by thematic, geographic and technical experts, and are accompanied by qualitative country profiles to ensure these numbers make sense in the real-world context and to offer users a foundation to develop informed policies to counter organized crime.


Sort and compare

While responses differ from country to country, organized crime is nevertheless a global problem. Under the criminality and resilience components of the Index, countries are ranked based on their scores in order to offer users the option for comparative analysis, both thematically and geographically, across the globe. Countries may have similar scores but for different reasons, so above all, country rankings are meant to start a conversation among policymakers and regional bodies, encouraging them to delve deeper into how and why organized crime affects their respective countries, and learn from one another in order to develop effective resilience strategies.


Country summaries

In addition to the scores and rankings, the Global Organized Crime Index website allows users access to country summaries that explain the context behind each country’s scores. These summaries provide the background information on each country's criminality and resilience, including their subcomponents (i.e. criminal markets and criminal actors), while highlighting key trends based on expert assessments.

Pyramid height

The criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Pyramid width

The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Panel height

The resilience score is represented by the panel height which can be identified by the side of the panel.


Make your own comparison

The Global Organized Crime Index offers a holistic framework of a country’s overall relationship to organized crime. At the same time, its subcomponents and indicators allow users to disaggregate such information and determine correlations with various impact areas in any given country, region and/or continent. Policymakers and other users are able to compare data geographically, substantively and, with future iterations of the Index, temporally, so that they can identify key trends over time.



The Global Organized Crime Index was developed by a core team at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime: Laura Adal, Kosyo Ivanov, Chiara Gentili, Ebru Erkan, Tuesday Reitano, and Mark Shaw. Index development was also supported by Ana Castro, Kristina Amerhauser, Rumbi Matamba and Virginia Comolli, as Regional Coordinators, as well as by Nina Kaysser, Michael McLaggan and Sarah Fares. Credit to the GI-TOC's Publications team, Claudio Landi and Café.art.br for the design, visualizations and website.

In the process of developing this tool, the team drew on the support and expertise of more than 480 individuals and we would like to express our sincere gratitude to colleagues, experts, reviewers and research assistants for their tireless efforts to build a comprehensive and informative knowledge-sharing and analytical tool. Over a two-year period, experiences and informed opinions were exchanged, and lessons learned in order to develop the second iteration of the Global Organized Crime Index.

The Index itself was conceptualized years before the publication of the first iteration of the tool, and its realization would not have been possible without the foundational work under ENACT (Enhancing Africa’s Response to Transnational Organised Crime) − supported by INTERPOL and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), and funded by the European Union and in part by the Government of Norway. We would also like to extend our gratitude to the United States Department of State for funding the 2023 Global Organized Crime Index.

Final opinions, findings and conclusions do not necessarily constitute or imply expert endorsements, nor do they necessarily represent their respective institutions.

Technical reference group
Dr. Fiona M Underwood
Independent Statistical Researcher/Consultant
Georgios Antonopoulos
Northumbria University, Newcastle
Jonathan D Moyer, PhD
Director, Frederick S Pardee Center for International Futures
Karl Lallerstedt
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Dr. Leo S.F. Lin
Director, Institute for Asian Crime and Security
Professor Marc Tassé
University of Ottawa, (School of Management and Law School)
Dr. Michael Levi
Professor of Criminology, Cardiff University, Wales, UK
Dr. Patricio R Estévez-Soto
Lecturer in Security and Crime Science, University College London
Robin Cartwright
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Sara Batmanglich
Dr. Sharon Ingrid Kwok
Lecturer, Criminology, School of Social Sciences, Western Sydney University
Yannick Vuylsteke
Former Head of the Ibrahim Index of African Governance
Abdiaziz Mahmoud Ismail
Ahmet Yayla, PhD
Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, DeSales Univestiy, and Director, Center for Homeland Security & Master of Arts in Homeland Security
Akizi-Egnim Akala
Conflict, peace and security expert
Alan Martin
Head of Responsible Sourcing, LBMA
Aleksandar Srbinovski
Coordinator for the Network of Experts for the South Eastern Europe Observatory; Field Coordinator for North Macedonia, GI-TOC
Aleksandra Bulatovic, PhD
Associate Research Professor, Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory, University of Belgrade
Dr. Alexander Kupatadze
Associate Professor, King's College London
Dr. Alexandra Abello Colak
London School of Economics and Political Science
Alexandre Bish
Prof. Alexandre Kukhianidze
Professor of Political Science, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia
Dr. Alexis A. Aronowitz
Independent Consultant
Alice Fereday
Dr. Alice Tregunna
Independent Consultant
Dr. Allan Gillies
Lecturer in Global Economy, School of Social and Political Science, University of Glasgow
Ambika Satkunanathan
Ana Castro
Dr Andi Hoxhaj
Lecturer in Law, University College London
Andre Almeida Silva
Prof. Andreas Schloenhardt
The University of Queensland, Australia and University of Vienna, Austria
Dr.iur. Andrejs Vilks
Professor, Faculty of Law, Riga Stradins University
Prof. Andrés Antillano
Instituto de Ciencias Penales. Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Anesa Agović
Field Coordinator for Bosnia and Herzegovina, GI-TOC
Dr. Angelo Constantinou
Adjunct Lecturer-Open University of Cyprus / Visiting Assistant Professor-University of Cyprus
Dr. Anna Markovska
Associate Professor in Criminology, Deputy Director PIER, Anglia Ruskin University
Dr. Anna Powles
Massey University
Anna Sergi
Professor, University of Essex, UK
Antonio Sampaio
Thematic Lead for Cities & Illicit Economies, GI-TOC
Artis Velšs
Researcher, Riga Stradins University
Arturo Matute
Director, Gobernalisis S.A.
Astrid De Schutter
Researcher, Flemish Peace Institute
Attila Biro
Co-founder, Context.ro
Austin Knuppe
Assistant Professor of Political Science, Utah State University
Beatriz Seabra Brito
Guest Professor, Nova School of Law / Lawyer, Bank of Portugal
Beka Feathers
Independent Consultant
Birahime Seck
Coordonnateur Général du Forum Civil, Section Sénégalaise Transparency International
Bojan Dobovšek, PhD
Borislav Gerasimov
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women
Dr. Boštjan Slak
Dr. Camille Hernández-Ramdwar
Associate Professor Emerita, Toronto Metropolitan University
Carlos A. Mendoza A.
Academic Coordinator, Dialogos
Carlos Anibal Peris
Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, Paraguay
Carlos Hernández Vázquez
Independent Consultant, Member of the Asociacion of Certified Financial Crime Specialists - Chapter Mexico
Carolina Duque
International researcher and professor
Dr. Carolina Sampó
University of Maryland - Conicet, Argentina
Celia Medrano
Consultant specialized in Human Rights
César A. Ipenza Peralta
Environmental lawyer specialized in environmental matters; GIN Member - Peru
Christian Locka
Director, Museba Journalism Project
Christian Nellemann
Concepción Anguita Olmedo
Lecturer in International Relations and Organized Crime at Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Senior Researcher, Complutense Institute of International Studies (ICEI)
Dr. Constanze Blum
Leipzig University
Crispin Yuen
CAMS-Audit, CISSP, CISA, Director, Custos Advisory
Dr. Daan van Uhm
Utrecht University
Dr. Dalia Ghanem
Senior research analyst, expert on Algeria, European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)
Daniele Grasso
Data and Investigative Journalist at El País
Dr. Dany Franck A. Tiwa
Executive Director, African Centre for Crime and Security Studies (ACCSS)
Dardan Koçani
Field Coordinator for Kosovo, GI-TOC
Prof. David Bright
School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Deakin University
David Pérez Esparza
Dr. Dávid Tóth Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor, University of Pécs, Faculty of Law, Criminology and Penal Execution Law Department
Prof. David Wall
Deanna Davy
Dejan Milovac
Director, MANS' Investigative Center
Delfin Mocache Massoko
Dr. Derica Lambrechts
Political Science, Stellenbosch University
Desmond Arias
Director, Bildner Center for Western Hemisphere Affairs, the Graduate Center, City University of New York
Dr. Diego Sanjurjo
Universidad Católica del Uruguay / Lecturer
Prof. Dr. Dina Siegel
Utrecht University
Dr. Douglas M C Allan
Head of School, Charles Sturt University
Dylan Kerrigan
Edgardo Mejia Gomez-Marquez
International Security Advisor and Consultant
Edward Rees
Elisabete Vilar
Researcher, NOVA University of Lisbon – School of Social Sciences and Humanities (NOVA FCSH)
Emilia Columbo
Emilia Jurgielewicz-Delegacz, PhD
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Bialystok; The International Centre for Criminological Research and Expertise (Poland)
Eric D U Gutierrez
Dr. Erica Marat
Professor, College of International Security Affairs
Ernesto U. Savona
Professor of Criminology and Director of Transcrime (Joint Research Centre on Innovation and Crime), Università Cattolica, Milan
Professor Etannibi Alemika
Independent Researcher and Consultant in Criminology, Criminal Justice and Security
Eugène Arnaud Yombo Sembe, PhD
Governance, Peace and Security Specialist, Regional Project Manager, Francophone Africa, Africa Integrity Indicators.
Eugenio C Almeida
Research-Doctorate at the Center for International Studies, ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (CEI-IUL) and Associate Researcher at CINAMIL (Lisbon Military Academy)
Fabrice Kodjo Ebeh
Founder & President of ANCE-TOGO
Fabrice Rizzoli
President of Crim'HALT Association
Farai Maguwu
Executive Director of Centre for Natural Resource Governance
Fedir Sydoruk
Field Coordinator for Ukraine, GI-TOC
Felipe Botero Escobar
Head of Colombia, GI-TOC
Fiona Mangan
Senior Fellow, United Nations University
Francis Dusabe
Co-Founder, Crime Watch Inc
François Mathieu
Independent Expert, GI-TOC Board Member
Gabriela Reyes Rodas
Galen Murton, PhD
Associate Professor, Geography Program, School of Integrated Sciences, James Madison University
Dr. Gareth Price
Senior Research Fellow, The Azure Forum for Contemporary Security Strategy
Brig. General (rtd) Gaseikanngwe Peke
Independent Consultant, Botswana
Geoff Ramsey
Senior Fellow, Atlantic Council's Adrienne Arsht Latin America Center (AALAC)
Mr. Georges Nicette
Senior lecturer (Social work/Sociology), Health and Social Care Department, University Of Seychelles (UNISEY)
Georgios Antonopoulos
Northumbria University, Newcastle
Dr. Gernot Klantschnig
Associate Professor in International Criminology, University of Bristol
Attorney Gideon Cauton
International Justice Mission
PD Mag. Dr. phil. habil. Gilles Reckinger
Karl Franzens Universität Graz, Institut für Kulturanthropologie
Gorazd Meško
University of Maribor
Gregory Coleman
Security Expert on Liberia, Executive—Director, Sustainable Initiatives International (SII)
Guillermo Vázquez del Mercado
International Security Consultant
Gustavo Mauricio Bastien Olvera
Professor, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Dr. Hai Thanh Luong
Research Fellow, School of Social Science, The University of Queensland 
Hamid Azizi, PhD
Researcher, Flinders University
Dr. Hana Ross
University of Cape Town
Hannes Jansen Van Vuren
Advisor, Financial Investigations, UNODC Transnational Organised Crime, Illicit Trafficking and Terrorism Programme, Eastern Africa
Dr. Hasan Hafidh
Director, HH Expert Consultancy
Heather Sutton
Consultant on Violence Prevention and Citizen Security
Helgi Gunnlaugsson, PhD
Professor of Sociology, University of Iceland
Henrietta McNeill
Australian National University
Horacio Pacheco, B.A. Business Administration / PGIT
CEO of ADC, Expert member of GI-TOC, Steering Committee member of Americas Civil Society Regional Network for UNTOC Implementation, Focal Point Argentina
Hugh Miles
Al Shafie Miles ltd.
Hugo Blewett-Mundy
Journalist and Consultant for Eastern Europe
Ibrahim Jalal
Middle East Institute and Horizon Research and Advisory
Associate Professor Irvin Kinnes
Centre of Criminology, University of Cape Town
Israel Octave Bayili
West Africa and Sahel Violent Extremism and Organized Crime Expert
Ivan Marques, MSc
Human Rights and International Affairs, Secretary for Multidimensional Security at the Organization of American States
Ivan Rush Mugisha
Freelance journalist: AFP, The Africa Report, The East African
Esq. Iyadh Abid
Attorney at Law (New York State bar) & Policy Consultant
Dr. J E Hoare
Hon Research Associate, SOAS University of London
Dr. Jacqui Baker
Lecturer in Southeast Asian Politics, Fellow of the Indo-Pacific Research Centre, Murdoch University
Dr. Jade Lindley
Law School and Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia
James Lynch
Co-Director, FairSquare
Dr. James Windle
University College Cork, Ireland
Jamie Hitchen
Jason Eligh
Senior Expert, GI-TOC
Jason G Tower
United States Institute of Peace
Jay Caldwell
Deputy Director, Australia Pacific Security College, Australian National University
Jeff C. Frazier
Counselor, Loomis Innovation Council, Stimson Center, Senior Advisor, Atlantic Council
Jelle Janssens
Associate professor of criminology, Institute for international Research on Criminal Policy, Faculty of law and criminology, Ghent University
Jenni Irish-Qhobosheane
Jenny J Constantine
Janus Consortium
Jisun Choi, PhD
Director of International Cooperation Center, Korean Institute of Criminology and Justice (KICJ)
Joaquin Gil
Investigative reporter (El País)
Joelle Bassil
John Collins, PhD
Dr. John Coyne
Australian Strategic Policy Institute
John Grobler
Dr. John P. Sullivan
Safe Communities Institute, University of Southern California
Jonathan Rozen
Independent Researcher
Jonson N. Porteux, PhD
Associate Professor (Public Policy), Kansai Gaidai University
Prof. Dr. Joongyoung Hahm
Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Graduate School, International Relations
Jorge Mantilla
Political Scientist and Criminologist. Researcher in conflict and organized violence
Jorge Mario Andrino Grotewold
Expert/Academic Researcher
Dr. Jose Sousa-Santos
Visiting Fellow, Macmillan Brown Pacific Studies Centre, University of Canterbury
Julia Stanyard
Julia Yansura
Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, Global Financial Integrity
Julian Newman
Campaigns Director, Environmental Investigation Agency
Julian Rademeyer
Jüri Saar
Researcher, Institute of Internal Security, Estonian Academy of Security Sciences
Dr. Kateryna Boguslavska
Basel Institute on Governance
Dr. Katharine Petrich
Assistant Professor, Middlebury Institute of International Studies
Katherine Wilkins
PhD Candidate, Hertie School of Governance - Berlin
Ken Opala
Kevin Williams, CPP, PCI, PSP, CCTP cATO, PG Dip
Security Operations and Global Lead Security Investigations Hitachi Energy
Khachik Harutyunyan
Kim Moeller, PhD
Docent, Malmö University
Kimmo Nuotio
Professor, University of Helsinki
Dr. Kingsley L. Madueke
Kittipoom Neamhom
Distinguished Professor Ko-Lin Chin
School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University-Newark
Koalaga Oumarou Paul
Institut de Stratégie et de Relations Internationales (ISRI)
Kristof Titeca
Professor in Development Studies, Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp
Kwesi Aning
Director, Faculty of Academic Affairs and Research, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center, Accra, Ghana
Lawrence P. Markowitz, PhD
Professor, Rowan University
Lemine Ould Salem
Lennon Chang, PhD
Associate Professor, Cyber Policy and Risk, Centre for Cyber, Resilience and Trust, Deakin University
Dr. Lester Ramírez Irías
Association for a More Just Society (AJS), Transparency Internacional Honduras
Lilian Chapa Koloffon
Senior Researcher, The World Justice Project
Lina Khatib, PhD
Director, SOAS Middle East Institute, SOAS University of London
Dr. Loria-Mae Heywood
Child/human trafficking and development specialist
Luca Raineri
Lucia Bird
Lucia Dammert
Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Chile
Dr. Lucy Hovil
Partner, Expectation State
Lukas Diko
Chairman, Investigative Center of Jan Kuciak
Lyes Tagziria
Madan Sharma
Madeleine Ngeunga
Editor / Investigative journalist, InfoCongo
Marcelo Bergman
Profesor CELIV/ Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, Argentina
Marcena Hunter
Thematic Lead on Extractives and Illicit Flows, GI-TOC
Margherita Bettoni
María Fernanda Noboa González, PhD
Académica e investigadora experta en estudios estratégicos y de seguridad
Maria Karayotova
Senior Consultant, PMG Analytics
Dr. Marika McAdam
Independent consultant 
Dr. Mark Galeotti
Executive Director, Mayak Intelligence
Associate Professor Mark Lauchs
Queensland University of Technology
Mark Nuttall
Martin Verrier
Royal United Services Institute Associate Fellow
Dr. Martina Baradel
University of Oxford/Marie Curie fellow
Matt Herbert
Matthew Nanes
Associate Professor, Saint Louis University
Dr. Matthew Pate
Lecturer, University at Albany
Dr. Mauricio Vieira
Head, Chair on Countering Illicit Trade and Preventing Transnational Organized Crime at the University for Peace, UN-affiliated
Dr. Maxime Ricard
West Africa Researcher, Institute of Strategic Research of the Military School (IRSEM)
May Buchmüller
Dr. Mentor Beqa
Aleksandër Moisiu University of Durrës
Michael Dyson
Independent consultant
Dr. Michael Main
The Australian National University
Michael McLaggan
Michael Picard
Independent Researcher
Mick F.
Dr. Mohamed El-Guindy
Cybercrime and Cyber Security Expert
Mohamed Haji Ingiriis
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
Deshabandu Mohamed Ruwaiz Latiff
Former Senior Deputy Inspector General of Police, Crime and Organised Crime Range, Police Narcotics Range, and Commandant, Special Task Force, Sri Lanka Police, and Director, Global Security and Intelligence, Group Controls and Risks, Hela Apparel Holdings
Mohammad Azizur Rahman, PhD
Research Fellow, Toronto Metropolitan University
Associate Professor Dr. Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin
Criminologist, The National University of Malaysia
Dr. Mohammed Rahman
Senior Lecturer, Birmingham City University
Mohammed Sinan Siyech
Non-Resident Associate Fellow, Observer Research Foundation
Mouhamadou Kane
Muazu Umaru
Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA)
Muhammad al-Kashef
Human Rights Lawyer and Advocate, Consultant Researcher and Advisor, Watch The Med, Migreurop, Refugees' Solidarity Movement
Muhammad Subtain Raza
CFE, CAMS -Transnational Organized Crimes Consultant, USA
Nacer Lalam, PhD
Economist, National Institute of Advanced Studies of the Ministry of Interior
Dr. Natália Hangáčová
Dentons Europe CS LLP
Dr. Natalia Ollus
Director, the European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)
Natheer Brown
Cyber Specialist
Nesma El Shazly
University of Calgary
Dr. Nicholas Gilmour
Consultant and Author - The War on Dirty Money
Nicholas Hans Jong
Senior staff writer, Mongabay
Nick Lewis OBE
Dr. Nilia Viscardi
Universidad de la República, Uruguay
Nils Duquet
Director, Flemish Peace Institute
Odd Malme
Retired police chief and Senior Advisor of GI
Pahrur Dalimunthe S.H
Managing Partner of DNT Lawyers Law Firm
Paul Chaves
Member of Comunidad Internacional en Gestión de Riesgos y Seguridad (COLADCA) and Insiituto de Seguridad y Criminologia (ISEC)
Prof. Paul Larsson
Pauline Verheij
Independent Consultant, EcoJust
Dr. Paulo José dos Reis Pereira
Associate Professor, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil
Pavla Holcova
Editor, OCCRP
Dr. Peggy E. Chaudhry
Villanova University
Peng Wang
The University of Hong Kong
Peri-Khan Aqrawi-Whitcomb
Petr Kupka
Department of Anthropology, University of West Bohemia
Dr. Phil René Oyono
Senior Policy Research Fellow, Rights and Resources Initiative (Central Africa & Washington DC)
Adjunct Associate Professor Philip Alpers
Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney
Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
CNRS Research Fellow, Paris, France
Prem Mahadevan
Prof Zbigniew Lasocik
Human Trafficking Studies Center, University of Warsaw, Poland
Rabi Raj Thapa
Retired Additional Inspector General, Armed Police Force; Security and Law Enforcement Expert
Racheline Tantular
Analyst at Lydekker and Independent Consultant
Dr. Raluca-Ioana Mocanu
Randrianarisoa Riana Raymonde
Freelance journalist, Madagascar
Riccardo Fabiani
North Africa Director, the International Crisis Group
Richard Chelin
Richard Giragosian
Director, Regional Studies Center (RSC), Yerevan, Armenia
Richard Obinna Iroanya
University of Namibia, Department of Military of Science, School of Military Science Windhoek
Dr. Rieko Hayakawa
Law School, Doshisha University
Roberto Obando
Director of Peace, Justice and Security, Pan American Development Foundation (PADF), Washington, DC, USA
Roy McComb
Consultant, Transnational Organised Crime
Roya Kashefi
Association des Chercheurs Iraniens (ACI)
Ruggero Scaturro
Rukshana Rizwie
Senior Researcher and Journalist
Ruslan Trad
Representative of the Atlantic Council’s DFRLab
Ruta Nimkar
Director, Meraki Labs
Ruth Freedom Pojman
Ruth Freedom Pojman Advisory
Ryhor Nizhnikau
Senior Research Fellow, Finnish Institute of International Affairs
Sam Ratner
Policy director, Win Without War
Dr. Sanam Vakil
Director, Middle East & North Africa Programme, Chatham House, Royal Institute of International Affairs
Sandra Kobajica Mišanović, PhD
University of Sarajevo
Dr. Sandra Scicluna, PhD
Senior Lecturer and Head of Department of Criminology, Faculty for Social Wellbeing, University of Malta
Sandro Mattioli
Journalist and President of Mafianeindanke e.V.
Dr. Sasha Jesperson
Selma el Obeid
Independent Researcher
Siegfried Wolf
Simona Schreier, PhD Candidate
University for Continuing Education Krems, Austria
Singo S. Mwachofi
Lecturer in Political Science, University of Nairobi, Kenya and Deputy Director, Security Research and Information Centre (SRIC), Nairobi.
Sonia Ruxandra Boticiu
Research Associate, Teichmann International (Schweiz) AG
Sophie Brain
Research Officer, Commonwealth Secretariat
Stefano Betti
International Security and Criminal Policy Expert
Stephen Schneider
Department of Criminology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Steven Broad
Independent Consultant
Assoc.prof.dr.sc. Sunčana Roksandić
Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Susanne Knickmeier, M.A.
Sveinn Helgason
Policy Analyst, GIN Member
Professor T. Wing Lo
Caritas Institute of Higher Education, Hong Kong
Takuma Kamada
Associate professor, Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University
Dr. Tarela Juliet Ike
Senior Lecturer in Criminology and Policing, Teesside University
Tarik Weekes
Research Fellow, Centre for Criminal Justice and Security, The University of the West Indies.
Tariq Khosa
Director, Centre for Governance Research
Tariq Parvez
President, Advisory Board, National Initiative against Organized Crime
Dr. Tena Prelec
Centre for Advanced Studies Southeast Europe, University of Rijeka
Tevita Tupou
Thapelo Ndlovu
Independent Consultant
Thi Hoang
Thierry Vircoulon
Senior consultant, French Institute for International Affairs
Tim Morris AM APM
CEO Bayview Advisory
Timo Shihepo
Researcher, and Freelance Investigative Journalist
Tiziano Breda
Latin America expert
Tom Westcott
Freelance Journalist
Tomas Maule
East Africa Transnational Organized Crime Expert
Tomslin Samme-Nlar
Research Director, Gefona Digital Foundation (Cameroon)
Trpe Stojanovski
Professor, Faculty of Security, St. Kliment Ohridski University, North Macedonia
Vaishali Basu Sharma
Analyst, Macroeconomics and Geostrategy
Valeska Troncoso
Center for Studies on Transnational Organized Crime (CeCOT); International Relations Institute, University of La Plata
Vel Moonien
Freelance journalist
Verónica Supliguicha Cárdenas
Dr. Viatcheslav Avioutskii
Professor, ESSCA School of Management (Paris)
Victor Hugo Aguirre Paredes
International Consultant
Virak OU
Founder and President, Future Forum, Cambodia
Dr. Wendell C. Wallace
Attorney-at-law/Mediator/Lecturer (Criminology and Criminal Justice), The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago, W.I.
Wilfred Leeuwin
Senior freelance/research journalist, Member of the Caribbean Media Association and the Surinamese Association of Journalists
William John Walwa
William M. LeoGrande
Professor of Government, American University
Wojciech Filipkowski
University of Bialystok, The International Centre for Criminological Research and Expertise, Poland
Xhelal Neziri
Journalist and PHD Candidate, President of BIRC Institute
Dr. Xhevdet Halili
Prof.Ass., GIN Member
Dr. Yulia Vorobyeva
Lecturer, Florida International University
Dr. Yuliya Zabyelina
Associate Professor, University of Alabama
Dr. Zoha Waseem
Dr. Zulia Orozco
Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Carl Miller
Tamás Bezsenyi, PhD
Research assistants
Alessia Rossi
Alessia Schiavon
Aliya Shibli
Allegra Ingenito
Amaya Debal
Anna Paus
Audrey Ferdinand
Boris Ananiev
Camilla Canestri
Camilla Silvi Marchini
Carmen Lesplulier
Carolina Guerra
Clare Profous
Daelyn Carrillo Sánchez
Daniela Santamaria Serrano
Diana Furtado Guerra
Emma Ortuño Lattur
Gabriela Stanimirova
Giovanni Marotta
Goziem Egbarin
Ioanna Balaoura
Juan Manuel Aguilar Antonio
Kristiana Nitisa
Laura Brody
Lindsey Kennedy
Linh Dang
Lukas Braun
Martin Benatre
Mesha Murali
Messay Gobena
Mustafa Karimi
Olga Biegus
Piera Laurenza
Rod Mackenna
Rozarta Dodaj
Sabrina Tripodi
Santiago Garre
Serge AKA'A
Taiwo Adeyemi
William Alvarez, PhD
Xavier Tayupanta
Yago Rosado
Yassine Guendouzi

How to measure organized crime?

A series of 13 discussion papers, one for each illicit market considered during the development of the Index.

Read more on globalinitiative.net
How to measure organized crime?

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This report was funded in part by a grant from the United States Department of State.

ENACT is funded by the European Union and implemented by the Institute for Security Studies and INTERPOL, in affiliation with the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.

The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.