About the Index

Based on the 2019 ENACT Organised Crime Index for Africa, the Global Organized Crime Index is a key flagship project of the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. It is a multi-dimensional tool that assesses the level of criminality and resilience to organized crime for 193 countries along three key pillars – criminal markets, criminal actors and resilience. Developed over a two-year period, the Index draws from both quantitative and qualitative sources, and is underpinned by over 350 expert assessments and evaluations by the GI-TOC’s regional observatories.

The objective of the Index is to provide metrics-based information that would allow policymakers and continental and regional bodies to prioritize their interventions on the basis of a holistic assessment of where vulnerabilities lie, and equip them with the means to measure the efficacy of their responses to mitigate the impact of organized crime. This is the first iteration of the Global Index, which will be published every two years.

About The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime

The Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime (GI-TOC) is a network of prominent law enforcement, governance and development practitioners who are dedicated to seeking new and evidence-based strategies and responses to organized crime. Created in 2013 and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the GI-TOC has a globally dispersed Secretariat and a network of regional civil society observatories that work to provide a platform for engagement with states and for dialogue and joint action between civil society, law enforcement and other state actors. Overall, the GI-TOC works to promote greater debate and innovative approaches, which serve as the building blocks to an inclusive global strategy against organized crime.

Access the GI-TOC website for more content related to the Global Organized Crime Index


Index composition

The Global Index measures criminality and resilience for each country on a scale of 1 to 10. Countries’ criminality scores are made up of the average of ten criminal markets and four criminal actor types. While encompassing a range of activities, criminal markets can be thought of as the political, social and economic systems surrounding all stages of the illicit trade and/or exploitation of commodities or people. Criminal actor scores are based on assessments of the structure, control and influence of groups engaged in organized criminal activities. The higher the criminality score a country has, the more severe its criminality conditions are.

Resilience scores are created by taking the average of 12 resilience indicators. These indicators represent the political, legal, economic and social spheres of society that when taken together, have the potential to provide holistic and effective responses to organized crime. Unlike criminality, the higher the resilience score a country has, the more effective its response measures are to organized crime.

The definitions of criminal markets, criminal actors, and resilience indicators as used for the purpose of the Index, can be downloaded here. All Index scores have gone through extensive rounds of review and verification by thematic, geographic and technical experts, and are accompanied by qualitative country profiles to ensure these numbers make sense in the real-world context and to offer users a foundation to develop informed policies to counter organized crime.


Sort and compare

While responses differ from country to country, organized crime is nevertheless a global problem. Under the criminality and resilience components of the Index, countries are ranked based on their scores in order to offer users the option for comparative analysis, both thematically and geographically, across the globe. Countries may have similar scores but for different reasons, so above all, country rankings are meant to start a conversation among policymakers and regional bodies, encouraging them to delve deeper into how and why organized crime affects their respective countries, and learn from one another in order to develop effective resilience strategies.


Country summaries

In addition to the scores and rankings, the Global Organized Crime Index website allows users access to country summaries that explain the context behind each country’s scores. These summaries provide the background information on each country's criminality and resilience, including their subcomponents (i.e. criminal markets and criminal actors), while highlighting key trends based on expert assessments.

The 193 standardized country summaries offer a detailed view of each country context, striking a balance between 'raw' disaggregated/varied information and holistic, user-friendly material. Along with expert contributions, sources consulted in drafting the summaries include media and local sources, academic journals as well as the following:

Publications of national and international organizations
  • Council of Europe
  • European Commission
  • Europol
  • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)
  • Global Witness
  • Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA)
  • Human Rights Watch
  • Insight Crime
  • International Labour Organization (ILO)
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM)
  • Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP)
  • Small Arms Survey
  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • United Nations bodies
  • World Bank
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
Indices and annual publications
  • Basel AML Index
  • Corruption Perceptions Index
  • Ease of Doing Business rankings
  • EMCDDA Annual Drug Reports
  • FATF Mutual Evaluations
  • Fragile States Index
  • Freedom in the World reports
  • Global RTI Rating
  • Global Slavery Index
  • IUU Fishing Index
  • Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report
  • World Press Freedom Index

Pyramid height

The criminal actors score is represented by the pyramid height on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Pyramid width

The criminal markets score is represented by the pyramid base size on a scale ranging from 1 to 10.

Panel height

The resilience score is represented by the panel height which can be identified by the side of the panel.


Make your own comparison

The Global Organized Crime Index offers a holistic framework of a country’s overall relationship to organized crime. At the same time, its subcomponents and indicators allow users to disaggregate such information and determine correlations with various impact areas in any given country, region and/or continent. Policymakers and other users are able to compare data geographically, substantively and, with future iterations of the Index, temporally, so that they can identify key trends over time.



The Global Organized Crime Index was developed by a core team at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime: Laura Adal, Lyes Tagziria, Kosyo Ivanov, Nina Kaysser, Tuesday Reitano and Mark Shaw. Index development was also supported by Deborah Bonello, Josefina Salomon and Susanna Deetlefs, as Regional Coordinators. Credit to the GI-TOC Publications team, and to Claudio Landi and Café.art.br for the design, visualization and website.

In the process of developing this tool, the team drew on the support and expertise of almost 420 individuals and we would like to express our sincere gratitude to colleagues, experts, reviewers and research assistants for their tireless efforts to build a comprehensive and informative knowledge-sharing and analytical tool. Over a two-year period, experiences and informed opinions were exchanged, and lessons learned in order to develop the first global organized crime index of its kind.

The Index itself, however, has been seven years in the making, and its realization would not have been possible without the foundational work under ENACT (Enhancing Africa’s response to transnational organised crime) − supported by INTERPOL and the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), and funded by the European Union and funded in part by the Government of Norway. We would also like to extend our gratitude to the United States Department of State for funding the 2021 Global Organized Crime Index.

Final opinions, findings and conclusions do not necessarily constitute or imply expert endorsements, nor do they necessarily represent their respective institutions.

Technical reference group
Dr Fiona M Underwood
Independent Statistical Researcher/Consultant
Jonathan D Moyer, PhD
Director, Frederick S Pardee Center for International Futures
Robin Cartwright
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Sara Batmanglich
Yannick Vuylsteke
Former Head of the Ibrahim Index of African Governance
Abdeta D Beyene, PhD
Executive Director, Centre for Dialogue, Research and Cooperation
Abdiaziz Ismail
Independent Migration Expert
Abdullah Almutairi, PhD
Visiting Academic, Oxford University and Head of the Law Department, Alyamamah University
Adriana Erthal Abdenur
Executive Director, Plataforma CIPÓ (Brazil)
Akizi-Egnim Akala
Alan Martin
Sechaba Consulting (Canada)
Alastair Nelson
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Alejandra Gómez Céspedes
International Economic and Organized Crime Expert Consultant
Aleksandras Dobryninas
Vilnius University
Dr Alex Chung
Honorary Lecturer at University College London, Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (UCL STEaPP)
Dr Alexander Kupatadze
Senior Lecturer, School of Politics and Economics, King's College London, UK
Alexander Söderholm
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Alexandra V. Filippova
Senior Staff Attorney, Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti (IJDH)
Alexandre Bish
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Alexandre Kukhianidze
Professor, Department of Political Science, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia.
Alexis A. Aronowitz
Senior Lecturer, University College Utrecht
Algimantas Čepas
Vilnius University
Allan Gillies
Lecturer in Global Economy, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Glasgow
Allan Ngari
Regional Organised Crime Observatory Coordinator for West Africa, ENACT
Ana Castro
Coordinator for Central America, GI-TOC
Dr Andi Hoxhaj
The University of Warwick
Andi Teixeira
Programme Manager for West Africa, GI-TOC
Andrea Giménez-Salinas Framis
Universidad Pontificia Comillas
Prof Dr Andreas Schloenhardt
Faculty of Law, University of Vienna and School of Law, University of Queensland
Andrejs Vilks, PhD
Professor, Rigas Stradiņš University, Faculty of Law
Ángela Olaya
Co-Founder and Senior Researcher, Fundación Conflict Responses - CORE
Dr Angelo Constantinou
Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Cyprus and Adjunct Lecturer, Open University of Cyprus
Dr Anna Powles
Centre for Defence and Security Studies, Massey University, New Zealand
Dr Anna Sergi
University of Essex
Prof Dr Anna-Maria Getoš Kalac
Head of Balkan Criminology at Zagreb University - Faculty of Law
Dr Annette Idler
University of Oxford/Harvard University
Prof Dr Antoinette Verhage
Ghent University
Antonio Baquero Iglesias
Europe Editor, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP)
Antonio Sampaio
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Ararat Osipian
Founding Fellow of the New University in Exile Consortium, New York
Dr Arian Sharifi
Former Director General for National Threat Assessment, Afghanistan's Office of National Security Council
Artis Velšs
Associate Professor of the State Police College of Latvia
Prof Asif Efrat
Reichman University (IDC Herzliya), Israel
Assis Malaquias, PhD
Professor and Chair, Global Studies and Maritime Affairs
Atanas Tchobanov
Investigative journalist, Bivol.bg
Beka Feathers
Independent Consultant
Benjamin Lessing, PhD
Associate Professor, University of Chicago
Benjamin Spatz
Bojan Dobovšek, PhD
University of Maribor, Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Bram Ebus
Criminologist and investigative journalist
Carla Pousa Caride, PhD
Associate Professor, Florida State University-Panama
Dr Carlos Anibal Peris Castiglioni
Universidad Nacional de Asuncion
Carlos Basombrio
Independent Researcher
Carolina Sampó
Researcher, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (Conicet), Argentina
Catherine Moat
Project Manager, ISS
Cathy Haenlein
Director, Organised Crime and Policing, Royal United Services Institute
Cecilia Farfán-Méndez
Head of Security Research Programs, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California San Diego
Charles Goredema
Consultant on Financial & Economic Crime
Chiara Parolin
Lawyer, International Women’s Rights Consultant and Human Trafficking Consultant
Chris Horwood
Director, Ravenstone Consult
Christian Bueger
Professor, University of Copenhagen and Director, SafeSeas
Christopher Changwe Nshimbi, PhD
Director & Research Fellow, Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation and Senior Lecturer, University of Pretoria
Concepción Anguita Olmedo
Lecturer in International Relations and Organized Crime, UCM and Senior Researcher, Complutense Institute of International Studies (ICEI)
Constanze Blum
Researcher at Leipzig University
Daan van Uhm
Utrecht University
Dr Dalia Ghanem
Resident Scholar, Carnegie Middle East Center
Dana Diaconu
Independent Consultant
Prof David Bright
Alfred Deakin Institute for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University (Australia)
David Danelo
Dr David Jancsics
Associate Professor , School of Public Affairs, San Diego State University
Deborah Bonello
Delfin Mocache Massoko
Dr Derica Lambrechts
Stellenbosch University
Dr Diego Sanjuro
Coordinator of Focused Police Crime Prevention Strategies, Ministry of Interior, Uruguay
Prof Dr Dina Siegel
Professor of Criminology, Utrecht University
Douglas Farah
President, IBI Consultants, LLC
Drew McVey
East Africa Wildlife Crime Advisor, WWF Kenya
Duncan E. Omondi (DEO) Gumba
Research Consultant, ENACT
Dylan Kerrigan
School of Criminology, University of Leicester
Edgardo Mejia
Security Advisor and Consultant
Dr Eirini Stamouli
Democritus University of Thrace
Elisabete Vilar
Emadeddin Badi
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Emile Dirks
Independent Consultant
Emilia Jurgielewicz-Delegacz, PhD
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Bialystok (Poland)
Eric Pelser
Programme Head, ENACT, ISS
Erica Marsh
Research Consultant
Dr Eugene Arnaud Yombo Sembe
Expert, Central Africa and Great Lakes
Eugénio Costa Almeida, PhD
Researcher, Center for International Studies (ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa)
Dr. Dr. Fabian Teichmann, LL.M.
Attorney-at-Law and Public Notary, Teichmann International (Schweiz) AG
Fabian Zhilla
Senior Advisor, GI-TOC and Associate Professor of Law, Canadian Institute of Technology
Farai Maguwu
Centre for Natural Resource Governance
Fatjona Medjini
Field Network Coordinator: Balkans, GI-TOC
Federico Varese
Professor of Criminology, Oxford University
Felipe Botero Escobar
Coordinator for Colombia, GI-TOC
Gabriel Feltran
University of Sao Carlos/CEBRAP
Galen Murton, PhD
James Madison University
Gareth Price
Senior Research Fellow, Chatham House
Gaseikanngwe Peke
Dr Gavin Robinson
Gavin Slade
Associate Professor of Sociology, Nazarbayev University
Prof Georgios A. Antonopoulos
Professor of Criminology, Teesside University
Germán de los Santos
Dr Gilles Olakunle Yabi
Founder and Executive Director, West Africa Citizen Think Tank (WATHI)
Gorazd Meško
University of Maribor, Slovenia
Graham Hassall
Adjunct Professor, Victoria University of Wellington
Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera, PhD
Associate Professor, Schar School of Policy and Government, George Mason University
Gugu Dube
Guillermo Vazquez del Mercado Almada
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Dr Hai Thanh Luong
Associate Research Fellow, School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University
Hans Stockton, PhD
Professor, University of St. Thomas, Houston (Texas)
Dr Hasan Hafidh
Visiting Research Fellow, King's College London
Helgi Gunnlaugsson
Professor of Sociology, University of Iceland
Hugh Miles
Al Shafie Miles ltd.
Hugo Frühling E.
Professor, Public Affairs Institute, University of Chile
Ioannis-Sotirios Ioannou
Founder, Geopolitical Cyprus
Isabella Bellezza
PhD Candidate, Political Science Department, Brown University
Itena Dhrami
Adjunct Lecturer, CUNY/John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Dr J E Hoare
Research Associate, Centre for Korean Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies Univeristy of London
J. N. Porteux, PhD
Associate Professor. Kansai Gaidai University
Jacqui Baker
Research Fellow, Asia Research Centre Murdoch University
Dr Jade Lindley
Law School and Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia
Jalel Harchaoui
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
James Lynch
FairSquare Research
James Smith
Point East
James Windle
University College Cork
James Wingard, JD
Co-Founder and Legal Director, Legal Atlas, LLC
Jamie Hitchen
Jan van Dijk
Fellow, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement
Jarrod Sadulski, PhD
Sadulski Enterprises
Jason Eligh
Senior Expert, GI-TOC
Dr Jay Albanese
Professor and Criminologist, Virginia Commonwealth University, Wilder School of Government & Public Affairs
Jay Bahadur
Researcher, GI-TOC
Ambassador Jean-Paul Laborde
Senior Advisor, GI-TOC and Roving Ambassador, Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean
Prof Dr Jelle Janssens
Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Ghent University
Jesús Alarcón
Partner at Koalsulting Mexico
Jo-Marie Burt
Associate Professor, Schar School of Policy and Government, George Mason University
John Collins
Director of Academic Engagement, GI-TOC
John Coyne
Dr John P. Sullivan
Safe Communities Institute, University of Southern California
Dr Jose Balmori de la Miyar
Associate Dean and Professor, Universidad Anáhuac México
José María Amarilla Alviso, CPP
Director, Open Intelligence Paraguay
Jose Sousa-Santos
Pacific Policy Fellow, Australia Pacific Security College and Managing Director, Strategika Group
Joyce Kimani
Observatory Coordinator for East and Horn of Africa, GI-TOC
Juan Carlos Cantú
Director of Programs, Defenders of Wildlife, Mexico
Julia Stanyard
Analyst, GI-TOC
Julian Rademeyer
Director, ESA-Obs, GI-TOC
Julius Kaka
Research Consultant, GI-TOC
Dr Jyoti Belur
Associate Professor, Department of Security and Crime Science, University College London
Karl Lallerstadt
Senior Fellow, GI-TOC
Dr Kars de Bruijne
Senior Research Fellow and Head of the Greater Sahel Programme, Clingendael Institute
Kateryna Boguslavska
Basel Institute on Governance
Katherine Wilkins
Hertie School, Berlin
Kathryn Ledebur
Director, Andean Information Network
Dr Kathryn Sturman
Senior Research Fellow, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland
Keith Ditcham
Ken Opala
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Ko-lin Chin, PhD
Distinguished Professor, School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University-Newark
Kutluer Karademir, PhD
Teesside University
Prof Kwesi Aning
Director, Faculty of Academic Affairs and Research, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra
Laura J. Lederer
President, Global Centurion
Lawrence P. Markowitz
Rowan University
Lealem M Abebe
Dr Lina Khatib
Director, Middle East and North Africa Programme, Chatham House
Prof Liz David-Barrett
Director, Centre for the Study of Corruption, University of Sussex
Lorenzo Bagnoli
Louise Taylor
Director, APA-Obs, GI-TOC
Lucia Bird
Director, WEA-Obs, GI-TOC
Lucia Dammert
Universidad de Santiago de Chile
Dr Lucy Hovil
Luis Nhachote
Executive Coordinator of Centro de Jornalismo Investigativo, Mozambique
Lukas Diko
Chairman, Investigative Center of Jan Kuciak
Madeleine Ngeunga
Investigative journalist
Maram Mahdi
Institute for Security Studies
María Fernanda Noboa, PhD
Dean of the School of Strategic Foresight, Institute of Higher National Studies of Ecuador
Maria Karayotova
Maria Popova
McGill University
Dr Mariya Y. Omelicheva
Prof Mark Galeotti
Mayak Intelligence Ltd
Mark Micallef
Director, NAS-Obs, GI-TOC
Mark Pegler
Martin Verrier
Associate Fellow, RUSI
Dr Mary Alice Young
Expert: Transnational Organized Crime and Senior Lecturer in Law, Bristol Law School, University of the West of England
Matt Herbert
Research Manager, NAS-Obs, GI-TOC
Dr Matthew L. Bishop
University of Sheffield
Dr Matthew Pate
Lecturer, School of Criminal Justice, The University at Albany/State University of New York
Matti Joutsen
Dr Maurice Ogbonnaya
Senior Fellow, National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies, Nigeria
Messay Asgedom Gobena
Ph.D. Candidate in Peace and Security Studies, Addis Ababa University
Michael Levi, PhD, DSc (Econ.), FaCSS, FLSW
Professor of Criminology, University of Cardiff
Dr Michael Main
The Australian National University
Michael McLaggan
Analyst, GI-TOC
Michael Picard
Graduate Research Fellow, Transparency International - Defence & Security
Minahil Khan
Legal Consultant, Adam Smith International and Research Society of International Law
Mohamed Daghar
Regional Coordinator, Eastern Africa, ISS ENACT
Dr Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin
Criminologist, The National University of Malaysia
Moussa Aksar
Investigative journalist
Moussa Soumahoro
West Africa/Sahel Conflict and Organised Crime Analyst
Mu'azu Umaru
Director, Policy & Research, GIABA
Muhammad al-Kashef
Human rights lawyer and consultant researcher
Nacer Lalam
National Institute of Advanced Studies of the Ministry of Interior
JUDr Natália Hangáčová, PhD
Dr Natalia Ollus
The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)
Octave Bayili
Odd Berne Malme
Senior Advisor, GI-TOC and former Deputy National Police Commissioner of Norway
Pahrur Dalimunthe, LLB
DNT Lawyers
Prof Paul Larsson
Norwegian Police University College
Pauline Verheij
Independent Consultant, EcoJust
Pavla Holcová
Peri-Khan Aqrawi-Whitcomb
Non-Resident Fellow, Payne Institute for Public Policy
Peter Andreas
John Hay Professor of Political Science and International Studies, Brown University
Peter Gastrow
Senior Advisor, GI-TOC
Petr Kupka
Department of Anthropology, University of West Bohemia
Philip Alpers
Centre for Armed Violence Reduction/GunPolicy.org
Philip Gounev
Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
Prem Mahadevan
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Rajeshwari Krishnamurthy
Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, New Delhi, India
Dr Raluca-Ioana Mocanu
Randrianarisoa Riana Raymonde
Independent journalist, Madagascar
Raouf Farrah
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Ray Jureidini
Professor, Migration Ethics and Human Rights, Hamad Bin Khalifa University
Richard Giragosian
Director, Regional Studies Center (RSC), Yerevan
Dr Richard Obinna Iroanya
Associate Dean, School of Military Science, University of Namibia
Dr Rikard Jalkebro
Rim Dhaouadi
Attorney at Law (Tunis Bar) and Independent Consultant
Emeritus Professor Roderic Broadhurst
Australian National University
Ronna Rísquez
Investigative journalist and organized crime expert
Roya Kashefi
Association des Chercheurs Iraniens
Ruggero Scaturro
Analyst, GI-TOC
Ruta Nimkar
Director, Meraki Labs
Ryan Gingeras
Professor, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School
Dr Sally Atkinson-Sheppard
Dr Sami Bensassi
Reader in Development Economics, University of Birmingham
Samina Ahmed
South Asia Project Director and Senior Asia Adviser, International Crisis Group
Samuel Oyimafu Asimi
Program Specialist, Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC) / Transparency International Nigeria
Sandro Mattioli
Journalist and President of Mafianeindanke e.V.
Dr Santiago Villaveces-Izquierdo
International Consultant
Dr Sasha Jesperson
Prof Saviour Formosa
Department of Criminology, University of Malta
Sébastien Hervieu
Journalist, Abidjan
Shanaka Jayasekara
Programme Coordinator (South East Asia and the Pacific), GMCP, UNODC
Dr Sharon Ingrid Kwok
Lecturer in Criminology, Western Sydney University
Simona Schreier
PhD Researcher, Danube University Krems, Austria
Simone Haysom
Senior Analyst, GI-TOC
Singo S. Mwachofi
Lecturer, University of Nairobi and Deputy Director, Security Research and Information Centre (SRIC), Nairobi.
Siria Felix Gastelum
Resilience Director, GI-TOC
Dr Sofie Waebens
Researcher, Flemish Peace Institute, Belgium
Sophia Wolf
Analyst, GI-TOC
Stavros Katsios
Professor, Director-Laboratory for Geocultural Analyses (GeoLab), Ionian University, Greece
Dr Stephan Blancke
Political Scientist
Stephen Schneider, PhD
Department of Criminology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Canada
Assoc.prof.dr.Dr.h.c. Sunčana Roksandić
Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Susanne Knickmeier
Sveinn Helgason
Policy Analyst
Takuma Kamada
Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University
Tarik Weekes
Research Fellow, Institute of Criminal Justice and Security, University of the West Indies
Tariq Khosa
Director, National Initiative against Organized Crime (NIOC), Pakistan
Dr Tena Prelec
Research Fellow, Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Oxford, and Member, Balkans in Europe Policy Advisory Group (BiEPAG)
Dr Tess Newton Cain
Project Lead, Pacific Hub; Griffith Asia Institute
Thoi Nguyen
Chatham House
Tiziano Breda
Central America analyst, International Crisis Group
Tom Bowker
Editor, Zitamar News
Tom Vander Beken
Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy, Ghent University
Tom Westcott
Vaishali Basu Sharma
Vel Moonien
Senior News Editor
Viatcheslav Avioutskii, PhD
Professor, ESSCA School of Management, Paris
Virginia Comolli
Research Manager, GI-TOC
Walter Kemp
Director, SEE-Obs, GI-TOC
William M. LeoGrande
American University, Washington, DC
Willie Oelofse
Dr Willis Okumu
Senior Researcher, East Africa, ENACT
Wojciech Filipkowski
University of Bialystok, The International Centre for Criminological Research and Expertise, Poland
Yulia Vorobyeva
Researcher and Lecturer, Florida International University
Prof Yvon Dandurand
Fellow, International Centre for Criminal Law Reform
Prof Zbigniew Lasocik
Human Trafficking Studies Center, University of Warsaw, Poland
Zora L. Hauser
Research Fellow, Extra-Legal Government Institute (ExLegi), University of Oxford
Zsuzsanna Wirth
Journalist, Direkt36.hu
Research assistants
Alexander Poignant
Alexander Scragg
Angela Aiello
Angelica Gottlieb
Anna Paus
Ariane Francisco
Bassit Abbas
Bram Van Wiele
Clare Profous
Licda. Corinne Dedik
Daniela Sota Valdivia
Fabio Seferi
Felipe Puerta Cuartas
Gabriela Reyes Rodas
Geng Li
Gonzalo Croci
Hadeel Aldhaher
Harneel Kaur Aujla
Heike Koehler
Ioannis Vlassis
Jack Moss
Jacob Thaler
Jan Eijking
Jurabek Ruziev
Kyle Walter
Laura Brody
Laura Nathalia Avila Rivera
Maria Stolyarova
Mathias Bak
Mesha Murali
Michaela Espenschied
Muhammad Abunnassr
Nanar Hawach
Nazli Tarzi
Nesrine Ben Brahim
Nicole El-Helou
Nicole Kalczynski
Olga Biegus
Perkha Traxl
Rachel Mackenna
Dr Samantha A. Gordine
Sara Canto
Shenaé Jonas
Simon Haux
Tejal Ambardekar
Thomas Claughton
Tim Höflinger
Tim Spalding
Vânia Salgadinho
Wahyu Nurbandi
Wenting He
Xavier Tayupanta

This report was funded in part by a grant from the United States Department of State.

ENACT is funded by the European Union and implemented by the Institute for Security Studies and INTERPOL, in affiliation with the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime.

The opinions, findings and conclusions stated herein are those of the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime and do not necessarily reflect those of the United States Department of State.